This and that
In Māori locating what is being spoken about in relation to the speaker and listener is important. The words showing direction i.e. mai, atu, iho and ake are often used to indicate location in relation to the speaker. The words nei, nā and rā are also frequently used for locating things in relation to the speaker and listener. Nei is used when the subject of discussion is located near the speaker. Nā is used when the subject of discussion is located near the listener, while rā is used when the subject of discussion is located away from both the speaker and the listener. Nei, nā and rā are also used in combination with te and ngā which indicate how many objects or people are being discussed.
Titiro ki te motokā nei.
Look at the car here. (or Look at this car.)
Nei is used to indicate that the car is near the speaker.
Ko Eruera te tangata nā.
Eruera is that person (near you).
Nā is used to indicate that Eruera is near the listener.
Nā Mīria ngā pukapuka rā.
Those books (over there) belong to Mīria.
Rā is used to indicate that Mīria’s books are away from both the speaker and the listener.
Te is often added to nei, nā and rā when one thing is being referred to.
Ko tōku motokā tēnei.
This is my car. (near the speaker)
Ko Eruera tēnā.
That is Eruera. (near the listener)
Hoki atu ki tērā kokonga.
Go back to that corner over there. (away from both the speaker and the listener)
When more than one item or person is being referred to, the initial t is omitted.
He pukapuka ēnei.
These are books. (near speaker)
He rakiraki ēnā.
Those are ducks. (near the listener)
He hipi ērā
Those are sheep. (away from both the speaker and listener)
For further explanations and exercises: Te Kākano pp. 44-45
Whiriwhirihia te kupu tika hei whakakī i te āputa.
Kei wareware i a koe ngā piko, ngā tohu pātai, ngā ira kati me ngā tohutō i ngā wāhi e tika ana.
He aha _______?
What is this? (near speaker)
Ko wai ________?
Who is that? (yonder)
Nā wai ________?
Whose are these? (near speaker)
Nā wai ngā pukapuka _________?
Whose are those books over there? (yonder)
He aha _________?
What is that over there? (yonder)
Nā wai _________ motokā?
Whose is that car? (near listener)
Titiro ki ________ pikitia.
Look at these pictures. (near speaker)
He karaehe waina _________
Those are wine glasses. (near listener)
Nā wai te pōtae ___________?
Whose is that hat? (near listener)
Nā wai _________ kurī?
Whose are those dogs? (yonder)
Haere mai ki te tiki i ngā kākahu __________
Come and get these clothes. (near speaker)
Nā Mīria ngā keke __________ i tunu.
Mīria cooked those cakes. (near listener)
Nā wai _________ kapu?
Whose is this cup? (near speaker)
He aha __________?
What are those? (yonder)
Nō Tāmaki-makau-rau te kapa _________
This group is from Auckland. (near speaker)
Hoki atu ki te rūma __________!
Return to that room! (yonder)
Ko taku pene _________!
That is my pen! (near listener)
He mōhiti __________
Those are glasses. (near listener)